The Old Kingdom



Egypt emerged from its Archaic Period, during which Neolithic man had lived in small communities along the Nile Valley, about 3300 BCE.


Menes of Tanis, the first powerful ruler, and Pharaoh, of Egypt, built his capital, the first imperial city on earth, at Memphis, from where he and his successors ruled for four hundred years. Forming the world’s first great empire from the many independent tribes living in the valley as he united upper and lower Egypt under his rule.


Even when the capital of the New Kingdom was moved to Thebes (Luxor), Memphis,  now largely destroyed by millennia of Nile flooding, remained the largest city in the north of Egypt, until Alexandria was built by the Greek Ptolemy's, following the death of Alexander the Great.



Nile Tour




A Marble Sphinx

in the Colossus Gardens



A colossus of Ramses II Pharaoh of the Old Kingdom. One of a pair excavated in 1820, the other stood outside Cairo railway station, but since moved to the new museum.