Hierapolis, “Holy City,” the ancient city built on the foothills of Pamukkale, takes its name from Hiera the wife of King Telephos, the founder of Pergamon, and is therefore believed to have been founded by King Eumenes.


Hierapolis came under Roman jurisdiction in 133 BCE, and an earthquake in 17 BCE destroyed large sections of it, which had to be rebuilt, during the reign of Tiberius.


When the city was again rebuilt during the reign of the Flavian dynasty emperors about 60 CE the theatre was relocated from the north to the eastern slopes. Much of the stonework was reused from the old theatre including the seating.


The city was laid out on either side of a wide central street of large limestone blocks, and columned on either side, known as the Plateia, with  the Arch of Domitian erected by Julius Frontinus in 83 CE, celebrating the reign of Domitian at one end. The gate has two round towers and three portals.


To benefit from the thermal waters, during the 2nd century CE the Romans  built a baths with a gymnasium and other facilities, to be used by visiting athletes.




Arch of Domitian


The Northern Baths


The Amphitheatre




Pamukkale Tour